Monica Udoette (PhD)


Over the years, Nigeria has had a running battle with curbing insecurity, wanton killings and maiming of citizens spearheaded by the fundamentalist religious sects known as Boko Haram and other breakaways extremist groups. The multilateral nature of terrorism which combines violence, devastation, destruction of properties, death, among other injurious and grievous memories has generated a body of creative enterprise by Nigeria writers. These writers succinctly reconstruct the tempo of terrorism, the societal ferment caused by terror, the devastating effects and its indelible repercussions on the citizens. This work therefore examines the intersecting lines of terrorism, memory and grief in Razaq Gbolahan's The Other Names of Grief.  The work investigates the creative representations of terrorism and the psychological implications on human psyche by adopting Cathy Caruth’s Trauma theory. The analysis of the poems reveals that terrorism and violence are merchandises of religious extremism and fundamentalism which breeds agony of pains, displacement and devastation. Characters are consistently on the edge as they involuntarily respond to unending dimensions of grief. It concludes that though victims of violence are doubly traumatized as they strive to contend with recurrent memories of attacks, writers continue to seek ways of bring creative works to expose the anguish of terror and to mediate the grief and anguish that victims go through.


Terrorism, Fundamentalism, Trauma, Memory, Boko Haram, Razaq Gbolahan

Full Text:



Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. (2021). Notes on Grief. Harper Collins Publishers.

Akaenyi, Jacinta Nkiruka (2015). "Beyond Sheer Entertainment: A Voyage Around Emeka Nwabueze’s A Parliament of Vultures and Osita Ezenwanebe’s Giddy Festival”.A Lion on the Ijele Dance: A Festchrift in Honour of Professor P. Nwabueze. (ed). Anyachonkeya Ngozi, Pp. 122 -130.

Affiah, Uwem, David Ekanem Udoinwang, Offiong Ene Amaku (2023). Enriching African Literary Drama with the Creative Technicality of Indigenous Story Performance Approach: The Example of Femi Osofisan. European Journal of Literature, Language and Linguistics Studies.Volume 6, Issue 3, Pp.12-27.

Affiah, Uwem, Offiong Amaku and Kufre Akpan (2023). “The Centrality of the Narrative Storytelling Performance Strategy in Sam Ukala’s Ideological Framework”. European Journal of Literary Studies.Vol.4, Issue 1, Pp. 63-81.

Akpan, Kufre (2021). Queer Childhood, Gender Panic and Homophobia in Unoma Azuah’s Blessed Body. UTENIKANG: Ibom Journal of Language and Literary Review. Vol.1, Pp. 150-162.

Akpan, Kufre (2021). “War and the Trauma of Child Combatant: A Thematic Extrapolation of

Uzodinma Iweala’s Beasts of No Nation (2005)”. Steadfast Arts and Humanities.Vol.1, No.1, Pp. 28-40.

Akpan, Kufre. (2022). “Cultural Tension and Artistic Mediation in Uwemedimo Atakpo’s Return to the Sun-god”. Middle East Research Journal of Linguistics and Literature, Vol.2, No.1, Pp.1-6.

Akpan, Kufre and Naomi Okon (2021). “Tears in Verses’: Leadership and Social Disillusionment in Tanure Ojaide’s Poetry”.Middle East Research Journal of Linguistics and Literature.Vol.1, No.1, Pp. 1-8.

Akpan, Kufre and Isonguyo Akpan. (2022). “Cultural Matrixes, Trauma and Female Voices in Yejide Kilanko’s Novels”.Voices: A Journal of English Studies. Vol. 7, Pp. 29-38.

Akpan, Kufre and Monica Udoette. (2023). "Migration, Identity and Reconstruction of Female Migrants’ Experiences in Chika Unigwe’s Better Never than Late.” European Journal of Literary Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2. Pp. 63-80.

Akpan, Kufre and Monica Udoette (2023). “Leadership Question and the Masses’ Culpability: A Critical Re-Appraisal of Niyi Osundare’s The State Visit and Paul Ugbade’s Our Son The Minister”. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies (SGOJAHDS), Vol.6 No.3. Pp. 191-205.

Akpan, Kufre and Monica Udoette. (2023). “Gender, Identity and the Manifestos of Liberation in Chimamanda Adichie’s Dear Ijeawele”. Pindus Journal of Culture, Literature, and ELT.Vol.3, No.8, Pp. 28-37.

Amzi Mohd. (2018). "A New Beginning of Trauma Theory in Literature" .AICLL: The 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature, .Pp 57-65.

Antonia, Vantriglio and Dinesh Bhurgra (2015). "Migration, Trauma and Resilience in Schouler-Ocak, Meryan's Endless Route and The Last Coast”. JNPST: Lacino University, Vol. 5, No2.Pp 67-79.

Atanang, Benjamin, John Ekanem and Asukwo Oko (2022). “Peaceful Co-Existence in Nigeria: Christianity in Focus”.Niger Delta Journal of Gender, Peace & Conflict Studies. Vol.2, No.3, Pp. 197-211.

Badejogbin, Oluwatoyin (2013). "Boko Haram. An Enquiry into the socio-political Context of Nigeria's Counter terrorism Response. Journal of Law, Democracy and Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, Pp. 15-24.

Caruth, Cathy (1996). Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ezeani, Elimma (2017). "Responding to Homegrown Terrorism: the Case of Boko Haram". Annual Survey of International and Comparative Law.

Freud, Sigmund (1920). Beyond Pleasure Principles. Routledge.

Gbolahan, Rasaq Malik (2020). The Other Names Of Grief. Parresia Publishers.2020.

Habila, Helon (2016). The Chibok Girls: The Boko Haram Kidnappings and Islamist Militancy in Nigeria. Columbia Global Report.

Hargreaves, Ben. (2000). "Traumatic Characterisation in the English Novels". Yale Journal of Criticism, Vol. 4, no. 2.Pp 155-168.

Hoffman, Bruce. (1998). Inside Terrorism.Colombia Univ. Press.

Horvitz, Deborah (2000). Literary Trauma: Sadism, Memory, and Sexual Violence in American Women’s Fiction. Albany: Suny Press.

Jacob, Okon Udofot (2023). Language Communication and Efficacious Performing Arts Practice in Nigeria: Theatre and Film Experience. Sapientia Foundation Journal of Education, Sciences and Gender Studies (SFJESGS), Vol.5, No.4, Pp. 87 – 101.

Jacob, Okon Udofot. (2023). Theatre Design, Climate Change and the ‘Nna Enin 2023 Community Theatre’ Experience in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies (SGOJAHDS), Vol.6 No.4 December, Pp. 45 – 59

Jacob, Okon Udofot. (2023) Kingsley William Dexter Lyndersay and Influence on the Development of Technical Theatre Practice in Nigerian. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies (SGOJAHDS), Vol.6, No.4 December, Pp. 33 – 44

Oko, Asuquo Edet. (2013). “The Politics of Gender and Power in Nigeria: The Christian Analysis”. Journal of Theology, Religious and Cultural Studies (JOTRAC).Vol.1, Issue 1, Pp. 28-44.

Oko, Asukwo Edet (2020). “Social Needs and Injustice in Nigeria: An Appraisal” .SGOJAHDS: Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies. Vol. 3, No. 2, June, Pp. 187-196.

Okpiliya, James and Kufre Akpan (2020). “Fundamentalism, Terror and Discourse of Wantonness in Obinna Udenwe’s Satans & Shaitans and Helon Habila’s The Chibok Girls.International of Journal of Language and Literature. Vol. 8, No. 1, Pp. 50-57.

Okpiliya, James and Kufre Akpan. (2021). “Jude Dibia’s Walking with Shadows and the Representation of Queerness in the Nigerian Context”. International Journal of Humanitatis Theoreticus. Volume 5, Issue 1.

Okpiliya, James and Kufre Akpan (2016). “The Journey as Structural and Instrumental Technique in Nigerian Children’s Fiction. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences.Vol.4, Issue 6, Pp. 28-33.

Kaplan, Ann (1990). Trauma and Convalescency. Routledge.

Kolk, Bessel and Alexander C. McFarlane (2010). “The Black Hole of Trauma”.Literary Theory An Anthology. (eds.) Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan.Blackwell, Pp. 487-502.

Marcus, Morrell. (2024). "The Principles of Trauma Theory in the literary lens". http:/memadibook.the-principle-of-trauma-theory-in-the-literary-lens-morrel-marcus-836-8277 Accessed: 26 January.

Ndubuwa, Ohaeri and Asukwo Oko (2020). “Rural – Urban Migration in Genesis 12:10: A Model of Migrations in the Church”. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies (SGOJAHDS).Vol.3, No.2, Pp. 180-186.

Ndubuwa, Ohaeri and Asukwo Oko (2021). Ikwuano Women in 1929 Women’s Protest: A Recipe from Women War in Ancient Isreal. (Judges 4: 4-24)”. UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities.Vol. 22, No.2, Pp. 164-187.

Ndubuwa, Ohaeri and Asukwo Oko (2022). “Concept of Shalom in Psalm 122:6 and Its Imperativeness in African Context”. Lafia Journal of Religion and Humanities.Vol.1&2, Pp. 49-64

Sibani, Clifford and Asukwo Oko (2013). ‘The Politics of Gender and Power in Nigeria: The Christian Analysis”.Journal of Theology, Religious and Cultural Studies.(JOTRAC).Vol.1, Issue 1, Pp. 28-44.

Sibani, Clifford and Asukwo Oko (2022). “Youth and Alcoholism in Contemporary African Society: A Socio-Religious Therapy”.KIU Journal of Humanities.Vol. 7, No1, Pp. 107-115.

Udoette, Monica (2014). “The Discourse of Generational Difference in Chosen Novels of Maya Angelou and Terry McMillan”.A PhD Thesis in the Department of English, University of Ibadan. January, .

Udoette, Monica. (2023). “Trauma and (Dys) Functional Family Bonds in Terry McMillan’s A Day Late and a Dollar Short”. IJSELL: International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature. Vol.11,No. 9, Pp 1-9.

Udofia, Anietie; Uwemedimo Atakpo and David Ekanem Udoinwang (2023). International Journal of Arts and Social Science ISSN: 2581-7922, Vol. 6 Issue 4, April Pp.1-58.

Udoinwang, David Ekanem, Ikpe Justice Akpan (2023). Digital transformation, social media revolution, and e-society advances in Africa: Are indigenous cultural identities in danger of extinction? 2023.

Udoinwang, David Ekanem and Chinenye Amonyeze (2022). Of Africa’s Underdevelopment and Deceptive Intellectualism: A Pan - Africanist Inquiry into J.P. Clark-Bekederemo’s State of the Union. ANSU Journal of Language and Literary (AJLLS) Vol.2 No.1, Pp. 159-169.

Udoinwang, David and Kufre Akpan (2023). “Social Hysteria, Moral Panic and the (Dys)fuctional Order of Postmodernity in Amma Darko’s Faceless and Bolaji Abdullahi’s Sweet Sixteen. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research.Vol.19, no.4, Pp. 185-200.

Udoinwang, David and Kufre Akpan (2023). “The Writer, the Muse and Revolutionary Incitement in Joe Ushie’s Poetry”. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies.(SGOJAHDS), Vol.6 No.2, Pp. 341 – 350.

Udoinwang, David Ekanem (2020). Protest Voice and Narrative of Ethno-nationality Identity: Ken Saro Wiwa’s Autobiography. AKSU Journal of English. Vol. 3, Pp. 143-157.

Udoka, S.T, E.T. Enang and I. D. Utin. “Consonant Combinations in Annang and English Languages: A Look at the Final Clusters”. Journal of Communication and Culture.Vol.9, Issue 2 &3. PP: 59-74.

United Kingdom: The Terrorism Act 2000, 2000Chapter 11, 20 July 2000. https://www, Accessed: February 10, 2024.

Usoro, Rebecca and Monica Udoette (2014). "Authenticating Performance with Oral Forms: The Case of Uko Akpan Cultural Troupe". LWATI: A Journal Contemporary Research.Vol.11,No. 2, Pp 60-74.

Usoro, Rebecca and Monica Udoette. (2020). "Petals of Red, Blood and Sacrifice: Transcending Humanity in Akachi Ezeigbo’s Roses and Bullets". LANGLIT: An International Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal. Vol.6, No. 3, Pp. 137-148.

Utin, Iniobong (2016). “Information and Communication Technology: A Tool for the Teaching and Learning of the English Language in the Open Educational Resources Development in Nigeria”. International Journal of Academia.Vol.1, Issue 1, Pp.78-87.

Utin, Iniobong Dominic (2023). “Spoken English and the Nigerian Identity: An Analysis of Features of the Annang Accent of the English”. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies” (SGOJAHDS).Vol.6, No 1, Pp. 61-68.

Utin, Iniobong Dominic (2023). “Spoken English and the Nigerian Identity: A Study of the Varieties of Nigerian English-based Pidgin”. Sapientia Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Development Studies” (SGOJAHDS).Vol.6, No.4, Pp. 343-353.

Vincent, Alfred (2013). "African Politics in the 21st Century". African Journal of Political Science and International Perspectives,Vol.7, No. 1, Pp 50-59.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Monica Udoette (PhD)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.










 ISSN (Print):   2695-2319

ISSN (Online): 2695-2327





Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.