Bernice Oluwalanu Sanusi, Sunday Zechariah Olanihun, Henry Amos Daniel, Tolulope Joy Alake


The media does not only inform educate and enlighten but also act as a driver to the developmental steps to better the society. This study examined the coverage of open defecation in choose Nigerian online newspapers. The study used the Agenda setting theory as the theoretical underpinning of the study. Content analysis was also adopted as methodology for caring out the quantitative study, with the  coding  sheet  as  the  instrument  of  data  collection. The composite sampling technique was adopted for the study of 104 editions of the choose newspapers. The findings revealed that in the 12 months that were studied, only 79 stories of open defecation were altogether found in the sampled papers. The study found out that the chosen Nigerian newspapers did not give prominence to the coverage of open defecation. Results also showed that the stories covered were mostly of the straight news format. Finding also discovered that the direction of coverage given to open defecation issues in the choose newspapers were negative. The study concluded that during the period of study the choose newspapers did not give prominence to the coverage of open defecation thereby failing in their agenda setting role to the society. Thus the study recommended that newspapers should give prominence to open defecation in the light of the 2025 open defecation free Nigeria goal and to emphasise in-depth and interpretative coverage of health issues and other related matter.


Agenda setting, Newspaper Coverage, Prominence, Open Defecation.

Full Text:



Abhilasha. R &Kakade O. (2015). News coverage of sanitation in Kannada newspapers–a content analysis. Paradigm, 4(4)09-12

Ahon, F. (2022, May 24). Only 78 LGs in Nigeria free of open defecation — Opara. Vanguard.

Alfred, G. O; Ogwo, C.A & Ekwueme, A.C (2017). Mainstream Newspapers Reportage of Economic Downturn in Nigeria. Novena Journal of Communication. 1. 96-108.

Anorue, L. I, Obayi, P. M., Onyebuchi, C. A., Odemelam, C.C., Ekwe, O. C. (2012). The polemics of deregulation of the downstream sector in Nigeria: A journalist‟s perspective. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2(21) 145-154.

Apuke, O. & Omar, B. (2020). How do Nigerians newspaper report COVID–19 Pandemic? The Implication for Awareness and Prevention. Health Education Research, 35(5), 471-480.

Coffey, D., Gupta, A., Hathi, P., Khurana, N., Srivastav, N., Vyas, S., & Spears, D. (2014). Open defecation: evidence from a new survey in rural north India. Economic and Political Weekly, 43-55. DOI:10.1177/2158244016675395

Duru, P. (2021, November 20). 46 million Nigerians still practicing open defecation – UNICEF. Vanguard.

Earl, A. & Albarracín, D. (2007). Nature, decay and spiraling of the effects of fear-inducing arguments and HIV counseling and testing: A meta-analysis of the short-and long- term outcomes of HIV-prevention interventions. Health Psychology, 26(4), 496–506.

Falaju, J. (2021, September 21).Open defecation must end in Nigeria. The Guardian Newspaper.

Jonathan, Z. (2019, September 26). Two children beaten to death for open defecation. Punch

Kaliski, J. (2015). The past, present, and future of sanitation, with a case study of India (Master’s thesis). Amherst College, MA. DOI: 10.1177/2158244016675395

Laar, A. K. (2010). Family planning, abortion, and HIV in Ghanaian print media: a 15-month content analysis of a national Ghanaian newspaper. African journal of reproductive health, 14(4).

Nwokolo, P. N.& Nwokolo, M. A. (2021). "Employing the Social Media and the Mobile Phones (GSM) in the Campaign Against Open Defecation in South-East Nigeria,"Global Journal of Health Science, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 13(4) 1-38.

Odikamnoro, O.O., Ikeh, I.M., Ebiriekwe, S.C., Nnadozie, I. A., Nkwuda, J. & Asobie, G.C (2017).Incidence of malaria typhoid co-infection among adult in Unwana community, Afikpo North Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria. Afr., J.inect. Dis. 12(1), pp.33-38.

Pindiga, H. I., & Sa’ad Abdullahi, B. (2021). Communicating Development: News Coverage of the SDGs in the Nigerian Press. In The Palgrave Handbook of International Communication and Sustainable Development (pp. 559-583). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Riffe, D., Aust, C., & Lacy, S. (1993). The effectiveness of random, consecutive day and constructed week sampling in newspaper content analysis. Journalism Quarterly, 70, 133-139. doi:10.1177/107769909307000115

Sa’Idu, I & Jimoh,I (2017). Daily Trust and Fiscal Federalism in the Geopolitics of Information Dissemination in Nigeria (2004-2014). Nasarawa Journal of Multimedia and Communication Studies 1(1). 62-73

Showkat, N. (2016). Coverage of sanitation issues in India. Sage Open, 6(4), DOI: 10.1177/2158244016675395.

Talabi, F. Adaja, T. & Sanusi, B. (2019). A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)Campaign. international Journal of Communication: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Communication Studies, 24.

Ume-Ezeoke, G. (2022, January 25). Buhari Signs Agreement To End Open Defecation By 2025. Channels Tv.,Water%20Resources%2C%20Engineer%20Suleiman%20Adamu.

UNICEF (2018). Multiple cluster survey. In National survey finding report. Retrieved on August 4, 2018 from

Wimmer, R. & Dominick, J. (2011). Mass media research: An introduction. Wadsworth:Cengage Learning.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Bernice Oluwalanu Sanusi, Sunday Zechariah Olanihun, Henry Amos Daniel, Tolulope Joy Alake

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.










 ISSN (Print):   2695-2319

ISSN (Online): 2695-2327





Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.